Causes of Male Infertility

Male infertility can be attributed to various factors that affect sperm production, function, or delivery. Understanding the causes of male infertility is crucial for diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Here are some common causes.

  • Sperm Disorders; Low Sperm Count (Oligospermia) A condition where the number of sperm in the ejaculate is below the normal range. No Sperm (Azoospermia)  Absence of sperm in the ejaculate, which can result from a blockage or a problem with sperm production. Sperm Quality Issues; Abnormal Sperm Morphology; Sperm with irregular shapes, making it difficult for them to fertilize an egg. Poor Sperm Motility; Reduced ability of sperm to move and swim effectively.

  • Hormonal Imbalances; Hormonal imbalance that can negatively impact sperm production.

  • Genetic Abnormalities; Inherited conditions such as Klinefelter syndrome or Y chromosome deletions that affect sperm production.

  • Swelling of the veins that drain the testicles, can lead to overheating and impaired sperm production.

  • Infections; Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): Infections like gonorrhea or chlamydia can cause scarring and blockages in the reproductive tract.

  • Testicular Trauma or Injury: Physical damage to the testicles can impact sperm production.

  • Obstruction or Blockage:

  • Vasectomy or Vasectomy Reversal: A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization, and a reversal may not always restore fertility.

  • Ejaculatory Duct Obstruction: Blockage in the tubes that transport sperm during ejaculation.

  • Retrograde Ejaculation; Sperm is directed into the bladder instead of being expelled through the penis during ejaculation.

  • Medications and Treatments; Some medications, such as chemotherapy or certain antihypertensives, can affect sperm production.

  • Lifestyle Factors; Smoking: Tobacco smoke contains toxins that can harm sperm, 

  • Excessive Alcohol Consumption: Heavy drinking can lower testosterone levels and impair sperm production.

  • Drug Use: Illicit drug use, including marijuana and cocaine, can negatively impact fertility.

  • Excessive Heat Exposure: Frequent use of hot tubs, saunas, or tight underwear can increase testicular temperature and affect sperm production.

  • Age; While the impact of age on male fertility is generally less pronounced than in women, advanced paternal age can still be associated with a decline in sperm quality.

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